Antioxidant: A Novel Natural Skin Care Ingredient
Ratan K. Chaudhuri (
Dr. Chaudhuri目前是 Capros 生產商 Natreon
standardized extract of Phyllanthus emblica (trade named Emblica) was
found to have a long-lasting and broad-spectrum antioxidant activity.
The product has no pro-oxidation activity induced by iron and/or copper
because of its iron and copper chelating ability. Emblica helps protect
the skin from the damaging effects of free radicals, non-radicals and
transition metal-induced oxidative stress. Emblica is suitable for use
in antiaging, sunscreen and general purpose skin care products.
Inhibitory Effect of Phyllanthus emblica Tannins on Melanin Synthesis
Ratan K. Chaudhuri,PhD,Zoia Lascu
and Germain Puccetti, PhD
Cosmetics&Toiletries magazine February 2007 Volume
122. Number 2
Low Molecular Weight Tannins of Phyllanthus emblica- Anti-Aging Effects
Chaudhuri,Cristina Hwang and Germain Puccetti
Cosmetics&Toiletries magazine January 2004 Volume 119. Number
Transition Metal-Induced Oxidation- Implications for Skin Care
Ratan K. Chaudhuri
and Germain Puccetti
Cosmetics&Toiletries magazine September 2002 Volume
117. Number 9
Reduction in UV-Induced Skin Pigmentation Using Emblica
Evaluation of Human Skin Fibroblast Cell Viability Under Oxidative
Stress in the
Presence of Emblica
Measurement of Collagenic and Non-Collagenic Proteins in Human Skin Fibroblast Cells in the Presence of Emblica
Chondroprotective Potential of
Phyllanthus emblica in osteoarthritis
Venil N. Sumantran, Asavari Kulkarni, Rucha
Chandwaskar, Abhay Harsulkar,
Bhushan Patwardhan2, Arvind Chopra3 and Ulhas V. Wagh1
eCAM Advance Access published April 23, 2007
Ghosal, S., unpublished work
A human clinical study was performed involving subjects with Type II
hyperlipidemia. Test subjects in group A were given a Capros® capsule (250
mg) twice per day. Subjects in group B were given two 250 mg Capros® capsule
(500 mg total) twice per day for a period of six weeks.
The study measured total serum cholesterol (TC),
serum low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDLC), serum high density
lipoproteincholesterol (HDLC) and serum triglyceride (TG). The results
clearly showed that Capros® assisted in modest reduction of TC and LDLC with
no dose-dependant effects. The study also noted a significant reduction in
fasting glucose levels and that the dosage was well tolerated by all
subjects. The cholesterol-lowering effects of Emblica extracts have also
been demonstrated in numerous animal trials.
Rao, T.P. et al. "Amla (Emblica officinalis
Gaertn.) extracts reduce oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic
J Med Food 8 (3): 362-8, 2005
In an animal study, Phyllanthus emblica extracts showed strong free
radical scavenging activity. The extract also showed strong inhibition of
the production of advanced glycosylated end products. The oral
administration of Phyllanthus emblica extracts to diabetic rats
slightly improved weight gain and alleviated various oxidative stress
indices of the serum of the diabetic rats significantly. The elevated serum
levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, a glycosylated protein, an indicator of
oxidative stress, were significantly dose-dependently reduced in the
diabetic rats that were fed the Phyllanthus emblica extract.
Similarly, the serum level of creatinine, another oxidative stress
parameter, was also reduced. Furthermore, thiobarbituric acid-reactive
substance levels were significantly reduced with Phyllanthus emblica
extract, indicating a reduction in lipid peroxidation. In addition, the
decreased albumin levels in diabetic rats were significantly improved with
Phyllanthus emblica extract. With this, the serum adiponectin levels
also improved significantly. These results form the scientific basis
supporting the efficacy of Phyllanthus emblica extract for relieving
oxidative stress and improving glucose metabolism in diabetes.
Ghosal, S., "Method of inhibiting blood
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) can result in lipid peroxidation of membranes.
This generates fragments that bind to platelet aggregation factor receptors
(PAFs) resulting in platelet aggregation. Capros®, because of its
outstanding antioxidant properties, was tested to determine how effective it
is in preventing platelet aggregation.
In an in-vitro study, blood platelet aggregation was induced using either
ADP or Adrenalin. A series of inhibition samples containing either Capros®
or other materials were added to the pre-aggregated blood samples or, in
some cases, platelet rich plasma.
The result demonstrated that even at a lower dose than vitamin C or pine
bark extract, Capros® by itself, or in combination with vitamin C, inhibited
the aggregation of blood platelets significantly more than either vitamin C
or pine bark extract samples alone.
Al-Rehaily, A.J. et al. "Gastroprotective
effects of Amla' Emblica officinalis on in-vivo test models in rats"
Phytomedicine, 9(6): 515-522, 2002
An extract of Phyllanthus emblica was examined for its anti-secretory
and anti-ulcer activities. In rat models, including pylorus ligation Shay
rats, indomethacin, hypothermic restraint stress-induced gastric ulcer and
necrotizing agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) were employed.
Oral administration of Phyllanthus emblica extract at doses 250 mg/kg
and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the development of gastric lesions in
all test models. It also caused significant decrease of the pyloric-ligation
induced basal gastric secretion, titratable acidity, and gastric mucosal
injury. In addition, Phyllanthus emblica offered protection against
ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus and reduction in nonprotein
sulfhydryl concentration. Histopathological analyses are in good agreement
with pharmacological and biochemical findings. The results indicate that
Phyllanthus emblica extract possesses anti-secretory, anti-ulcer, and
Sairam, K. et al. "Antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic extract of Emblica
officinalis: an experimental study"
J Ethnopharmacol, 82 (1): 1-9, 2002
The ulcer protective potential of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis
Gaertn. (EOE) was assessed in different acute gastric ulcer models in rats
induced by aspirin, ethanol, cold restraint stress and pyloric ligation and
healing effect in chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid in rats. EOE,
10-50 mg/kg administered orally, twice daily for 5 days showed
dose-dependent ulcer protective effects in all the above acute ulcer models
(36.0-98.3% protection, P < 0.2 to P < 0.001) and significant ulcer healing
effect in dose of 20 mg/kg after 5 (control ulcer index: 20.2+/-2.3
mm(2)/rat, % healing 59.6%, P < 0.001) and 10 (control UI: 11.0+/-1.7, %
healing 65.5%, P < 0.01) days treatment. Further study on gastric mucosal
factors showed that it significantly decreased the offensive factors like
acid (acid output-control 118.7+/-12.1 microEq/4 h, EOE% decrease 65.9%, P <
0.01) and pepsin (peptic output-control 738.8 micromol/4 h, EOE% decrease
46.2%, P < 0.001) and increased the defensive factors like mucin secretion (TC:P
ratio-control 1.21+/-0.15, EOE% increase 95.0%, P < 0.01), cellular mucus (TC:P
ratio-control 1.16+/-0.13, EOE% increase 53.4%, P < 0.05) and life span of
mucosal cells (DNA content of gastric juice-control 77.3+/-8.7 microg/m per
100 g body weight, EOE% decrease 42.1%, P < 0.05). EOE showed significant
antioxidant effect in stressed animals (control UI 35.8+/-2.5, antioxidant
status: LPO 0.58+/-0.03 nmol MDA/mg protein, SOD and CAT 227.8+/-6.3 and
18.4+/-1.2 U/mg protein respectively; EOE% decrease in UI 88.2%, mucosal LPO
69.0%, SOD 53.1% and increase in mucosal CAT 59.8%, P < 0.001 respectively)
and did not have any effect on cell proliferation in terms of DNA microg/mg
protein or glandular weight. The results showed that EOE had significant
ulcer protective and healing effects and this might be due to its effects
both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors.
Tasduq, S.A. et al. "Reversal of fibrogenic
events in liver by Emblica officinalis (fruit), an Indian natural drug"
Biol Pharm Bull, 28(7): 1304-1306, 2005
An extract of Phyllanthus emblica fruit reduced the severity of
hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride CCl4) and thioacetamide (TAA).
Improved liver function was observed by measuring the levels of aspartate
aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline
phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin in serum. Hepatic parameters monitored were
the levels of glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and hydroxyproline
and the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Na+,K+-ATPase,
and cytochrome P450 (CYP 450 2E1) (aniline hydroxylation). The results
suggested that the Phyllanthus emblica extract reversed the
profibrogenic events. This can be rationalized due to the product's powerful
Sultana, S. et al. "Emblica officinalis
reverses thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress and early promotional events
of primary hepatocarcinogenesis" J Pharm Pharmacol, 56(12): 1573-1579, 2004.
In a study conducted on animals, it was found that Phyllanthus emblica
fruit inhibits thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress and
hyper-proliferation in rat liver. The administration of a single necrotic
dose of thioacetamide(6.6 mM kg(-1)) resulted in a significant (P < 0.001)
increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic
pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels
compared to saline-treated control values. Thioacetamide caused hepatic
glutathione (GSH) depletion and a concomitant increase in malanodialdehyde (MDA)
content. It also resulted in an increase (P < 0.001) in the activity of
glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose
6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx)
activity (P < 0.001). Hepatic ornithine decarboxylase activity and thymidine
incorporation in DNA were increased by thioacetamide administration.
Prophylactic treatment with Phyllanthus emblica for seven consecutive
days before thioacetamide administration inhibited SGOT, SGPT and GGT
release in serum compared with treated control values[ I don't know what is
being said]. It also modulated the hepatic GSH content and MDA formation.
The plant extract caused a marked reduction in levels of GSH content and
simultaneous inhibition of MDA formation. Phyllanthus emblica also
caused a reduction in the activity of GST, GR and G6PD. GPx activity was
increased after treatment with the plant extract at doses of 100 mg kg (-1)
and 200 mg kg (-1). Prophylactic treatment with the plant caused a
significant down-regulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity (P < 0.001)
and profound inhibition in the rate of DNA synthesis (P < 0.001). In
conclusion, the acute effects of thioacetamide in rat liver can be prevented
by pre-treatment with Phyllanthus emblica extract.
Banu, S.M. et al. "Protective effect of
Emblica officinalis ethanolic extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)
anthracene (DMBA) induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice"
Hum Exp Toxicol, 23(11): 527-31, 2004.
In a study conducted on animals, oral administration of Phyllanthus
emblica fruit extract in various concentrations (100, 250, 500 mg/kg
b.wt) for seven consecutive days prior to a single intraperitoneal injection
of rodent carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) decreased the
frequency of bone marrow micronuclei induced in Swiss albino mice.
Significant increases in liver antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH),
glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and detoxifying
enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST), were found in the fruit extract
treated group. The extract also reduced the hepatic levels of the activating
enzymes cytochrome (Cyt) P450 and Cyt b5. These increased in the carcinogen
treated group, which emphasizes its protective effect against the
carcinogen. There was a dose-dependent effect of the extract against the
genotoxin with the maximum effect at 500 mg/kg body weight. The protection
afforded by Phyllanthus emblica may be associated with its
antioxidant capacity and modulatory effect on hepatic activation and
Singh, I. et al. "Radioprotection of Swiss
albino mice by Emblica officinalis"
Phytother Res, 19(5): 444-6, 2005.
An extract of Phyllanthus emblica , administered orally at different
doses before irradiation was shown to have radioprotective properties
against sublethal gamma radiation (9 Gy) in Swiss albino mice. Animals were
divided into two groups and irradiated with gamma radiation externally, with
or without Phyllanthus emblica extract. The dose of extract found to
be most effective against radiation was 100 mg/kg body weight. This dose
increased the survival time and reduced the mortality rate of mice
significantly. Furthermore, body weight loss in Phyllanthus emblica
extract administered irradiated animals was significantly less in comparison
with animals who were given radiation only.
Hari Kumar, K.B. et al. "Modulation of
hematopoietic system and antioxidant enzymes by Emblica officinalis gaertn
and its protective role against gamma-radiation induced damages in mice"
J Radiat Res, (Tokyo), 45(4): 549-555, 2004.
In another study, the radio protective effect of Phyllanthus emblica
was studied in adult Swiss albino mice. Mice were treated with 2.5 g/kg body
weight of Phyllanthus emblica for ten consecutive days before
irradiation and exposed to a single dose of 700 rads (7Gy) of radiation
after the last dose. One group was given Phyllanthus emblica
continuously for another fifteen days after irradiation. Changes in the
total leukocyte count, bone marrow viability, and hemoglobin were studied
after whole body irradiation. Administration of Phyllanthus emblica
significantly increased these levels, which were lowered by irradiation.
Animals were sacrificed at various time points after irradiation and the
activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase
(SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST),
and levels of glutathione were assayed in the blood. The damage to the cell
membrane after whole body irradiation was studied by measuring the tissue
lipid peroxides levels. The results showed that administration of
Phyllanthus emblica significantly enhanced the activity of the various
antioxidant enzymes (catalase CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione
peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as glutathione
system in the blood. Treatment with Phyllanthus emblica also lowered
the elevated levels of lipid peroxides in the serum. Phyllanthus emblica
extract significantly reduced the bioeffects of radiation.
Sancheti, G. et al. "Chemopreventive action of
Emblica officinalis on skin carcinogenesis in mice"
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 6(2): 197-20, 2005.
The inhibition of tumor incidences by implementing Phyllanthus emblica
has been evaluated on two-stage process of skin carcinogenesis in Swiss
albino mice, induced by a single application of 7,
12-dimethyabenz(a)anthrecene (100 痢 / 100 痞 acetone), and two weeks later,
promoted by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/thrice a week)
till the end of the experiment (16 weeks). The tumor incidence, tumor yield,
tumor Burdon, and cumulative number of papillomas were found to be higher in
the control (without Emblica extract treatment) as compared to experimental
animals (emblica extract treated). The differences in the values of the
results of experimental groups were statistically analyzed and found to be
significant in comparison to the control group (p< 0.05). This demonstrates
the chemopreventive potential of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract on
DMBA induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice.
Nosál'ová, G. et al. "Antitussive activity of
the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Euphorbiaceae"
Phytomedicine,10: 583-589, 2003.
The antitussive activity of Phyllanthus emblica was tested in
conscious cats by mechanical stimulation of the laryngopharyngeal and
tracheobronchial mucous areas of airways. The results showed that at a dose
of 50 mg/kg body wt. perorally, the cough suppressive effect of
Phyllanthus emblica is not unambiguous. A higher dose (200 mg/kg body
weight) of this substance orally was more effective, especially in
decreasing the number of cough efforts (NE), frequency of cough (NE/min-1)
and the intensity of cough attacks in inspirium (IA+) and expirium (IA-) was
more pronounced. These results show that the cough suppressive activity of
Phyllanthus emblica is dose-dependent. It was demonstrated that the
antitussive activity of Phyllanthus emblica is less effective than
shown by the classical narcotic antitussive drug codeine, but more effective
than the non-narcotic antitussive agent dropropizine. It is supposed that
the antitussive activity of the dry extract of Phyllanthus emblica is
due not only to antiphlogistic, antispasmolytic and antioxidant efficacy
effects, but also to its effect on mucus secretion in the airways
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